What Is PCOD? Know It’s Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

What Is PCOD? Know It’s Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

PCOD, or polycystic ovary syndrome, is one of the most common hormonal disorders affecting women today. It is estimated to impact nearly 10-20% of women in the reproductive age group between 15 to 49 years of age in India, making it a widely prevalent condition. However, there is also a lack of understanding about this disorder among both patients and doctors.

PCOD is to blame for many issues like infertility, metabolic problems, psychological issues, and even diabetes in women. But the exact underlying cause still remains unclear, though genetics and lifestyle factors are known to play a major role. When left untreated or uncontrolled, PCOD can create lifelong health problems for women.

Symptoms of PCOD

The signs and symptoms of PCOD tend to develop gradually. Some women exhibit severe symptoms while others have mild signs. Following are the key symptoms:

  • Irregular periods: Women with PCOD get fewer than eight periods a year or periods that are very irregular. Some women also experience very heavy bleeding. 
  • Excess androgen: Increased male hormones like testosterone leads to excess facial and body hair growth along with severe acne.
  • Weight gain: Up to 80 percent of women with PCOD are obese or overweight. Rapid weight gain is common especially around the stomach area. Losing weight may be difficult despite diet and exercise. 
  • Hair loss: Women may experience thinning hair and hair loss on the scalp.
  • Darkening skin: Some women develop velvety, dark patches of skin on the neck, groin, and underneath the breasts. This is called acanthosis nigricans. 
  • Multiple Ovarian cysts: Multiple small, painless cysts form on the ovaries which can be detected through an ultrasound scan. 

If you are facing any of these symptoms you can schedule an appointment at Hale Clinics, which is one of the Best Multi Speciality Clinics in Mohali.

Causes & Risk Factors for PCOD

Doctors are uncertain as to what exactly causes PCOD, but they believe genetics, excess insulin, and low-grade inflammation play key roles. Factors that can increase your risk of developing PCOD include: 

  • Family history: Women with a close relative with PCOD are at increased risk, suggesting genetics are involved. 
  • Obesity: Up to 80 percent of women with PCOD are overweight. Excess fat leads to increased insulin levels that exacerbate PCOS symptoms.
  • Rapid weight gain: Gaining weight rapidly during the teen years seems to increase the risk of PCOD in adulthood.
What Is PCOD

Diagnosis of PCOD

Your doctor will carry out a medical history, physical exam, pelvic exam and blood tests to diagnose PCOD. They will usually check for:

  • Irregular, absent, or heavy periods 
  • Signs of excess male hormones like excess facial/body hair and acne
  • Dark patches of velvety skin
  • Ovarian cysts through pelvic ultrasound
  • Blood tests to check hormone levels as well as rule out thyroid issues

Along with this, your insulin levels and cholesterol levels will also be checked. Multiple diagnostic criteria exist for PCOD and you need to meet at least two to be diagnosed with it.

Lifestyle Modification for Treatment of PCOD

  • Balanced diet low in refined carbs: Reduce your intake of sugar and refined carbs while increasing protein intake to avoid spikes in blood sugar levels.
  • Weight loss: Losing just 5 percent of your body weight can help restore regular periods and ovulation.
  • Exercise regularly: Try to exercise for 30 minutes daily to improve insulin sensitivity. A mix of aerobics and strength training works best.


PCOD is a common hormonal disorder with lifelong implications. Consult with the Best Gynaecologist in Mohali to understand the nuances of living with & managing this condition. Focus on regular screening and protecting long-term health through lifestyle management.


Q1. What is PCOD?

Ans. PCOD, or polycystic ovary syndrome, is a common hormone disorder that affects women during their reproductive years. Women with PCOD have an imbalance of reproductive hormones which causes problems in the ovaries.

Q2. What are the symptoms of PCOD?

Ans. Common symptoms include irregular periods, weight gain, darkening skin and hair loss.

Q3. Can losing weight help in PCOD?

Ans. Losing just 5 percent of your body weight can help restore regular periods and ovulation. 

Q4. How is PCOD Diagnosed?

Ans. Your doctor will carry out a physical exam, pelvic exam, and blood tests to diagnose PCOD.